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PBC consensus mechanism: polar byzantine consensus

  • Fast speed, low algorithm complexity O(cN) level
  • The degree of decentralization is high, and 1000 nodes in a single shard can participate in the consensus
  • Consensus verification between cross-shards, mortgage more tokens has a greater probability of entering the shard, but equal rights after entering the shard

HSM storage framework: hutong storage mechanism

  • Originally created an asynchronous interactive storage structure based on the Merkel tree to realize the separation of data storage and control rights. The correctness of data can be verified through the summary, and the entire ledger data can be accessed, reducing the size of the ledger data and the amount of network transmission, which is flexible and efficient
  • No complete ledger, no performance bottleneck, support for horizontal expansion, and can be extended indefinitely (data is only related to this shard)
  • Multi-storage node backup, decentralization, high fault tolerance

ITM transmission model: interstellar transmission model

  • Fragmented networking architecture, which provides mechanisms for checking, updating, and reconnecting between nodes. Through discovery services, the number of connections to each node is always maintained at a reasonable level, and the transmission efficiency of the fragmented network is fully guaranteed
  • In-shard broadcast mechanism. After the miner completes the block confirmation, the new block information is first pruned, and then broadcast in the shard. The pruned header occupies only 400 bytes of space, which greatly reduces the network data transmission pressure
  • Cache the received confirmation data, reduce broadcast forwarding scenarios, and avoid network storms




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All-dimensional Sharding Flexible Blockchain, known as multi-core Ethereum with parallel processing.