MultiVAC’s April 2023 Monthly Project Report

7 min readApr 30


Welcome back to MultiVAC’s Monthly Project Report. If you have any questions or suggestions, please feel free to email us at

1. Project Development Updates

The dev team always keeps an eye on the industry’s latest innovations, and the team never stops exploring new technologies that could potentially enhance our blockchain.
MultiVAC has unique technical qualities, and we are certain that combining those advantages with the latest innovations will provide us with a clear competitive edge. Currently, the dev team is enhancing the ZK (Zero Knowledge) technology of MultiVAC, and we will share more details with the community in due course.
At the same time, we are also looking for ZK project collaborations. We welcome your recommendations in that respect. Spread the word!

2. Knowledge sharing

Thanks to the community for your suggestions, we will try to include some knowledge sharing in the monthly reports and we hope to communicate more with you soon.

The following knowledge-sharing comes from a 2019 video course taught by Professor Shawn. In essence, it details the four main advantages of MultiVAC. If there’s anything you want to know more about MultiVAC, feel free to suggest it in our social media groups, or send an email to

Four Highlights of MultiVAC’s Technical Proposal


First, the miners do not need to have high-end equipment/computer. We have lowered the miner’s entering threshold a lot.

Second, all the storage computations and all the data controls are in the hands of the miners, these two points ensure that ordinary miners can join in, and the entire network is controlled by the ordinary miners without forming the risk of centralization.

Third, we use VRF to ensure the security of a single shard, which is completely equivalent to the whole network.

Fourth, the processing volume of our single shard is proportional to that of the shard so that all our shards can be expanded horizontally on a large scale.”


Let me tell you more about MultiVAC’s technical design.

First of all, MultiVAC has designed a brand-new storage structure.

As you can see in our yellow paper, we have three types of nodes: storage nodes, miner nodes, and light nodes. Light nodes are more familiar to everyone and are equivalent to a light wallet. The core issue lies in our two roles: miners and storage nodes. We know that if you reach 1000TPS, your data volume can reach 15TB per year. So under such a huge amount of data, I don’t think an ordinary miner can store such a large thing, such a large file.

If you store such a large file, either you are a super node. In other words, the threshold for miners has been raised.

The threshold for miners has been raised, which means that mining or its consensus is a game for a few rich people and has nothing to do with ordinary people, right?

So MultiVAC’s core starting point is: first, we must ensure complete decentralization.

Yes, so we don’t consider sharding first. If we consider sharding first, we did something like this.

For example, in the Bitcoin UTXO model, why did I just mention the Bitcoin UTXO model? Because MultiVAC’s most original and basic transaction is also a UTXO model.

First of all, we have data, and we have built a Merkle Tree for this data. If you understand the Merkle Patricia Tree in Bitcoin or Ethereum, you understand this data structure. The Merkle Tree is such a tree, and then a hash is made between each pair to obtain an upper-level node, and then a hash is made to an upper-level node.

Then MultiVAC made an innovation, that is, our miners can not have a complete data ledger. This is a ledger, and miners can not have a complete ledger. What does the miner have? It only has this node, a root of the Merkle Tree.

Then we made some improvements, that is, this Merkle Tree can not only store UTXO, but also some very ordinary data.

For example, we store a Key:Value pair at the bottom layer. In terms of Key:Value pairs, the ledger stored by storage nodes can be understood as a complete database.

This is a complete database. Our miners do not need to have all the data of this database. I only need to have this root, which means that he has certain verification and processing capabilities for all the data in the entire database.

For example, if I want to query what value corresponds to this key? Then I don’t need to own complete data, I need to ask it, you tell me what value corresponds to this key?

I ask this storage node, you tell me what value it corresponds to? OK storage node can return this value to you and provide something called merkle proof or merkle path. Then after providing you with merkle path, the miner knows that OK the data you gave me is real and reliable and completely corresponds to my root because I need a merkle path to prove it

This concept may require some technical background. If you lack background knowledge, just remember the conclusion:

Under this form, miner nodes only have a very concise and simplified data, a very small data, and it can have the ability to verify the entire database.

This database can be very large, up to 10,000 TB, which is very large and there is no problem.

As long as I have this one very concise data, I have this ability to verify what your data looks like. So after you have this data (root), your miner has this ability. So besides having query capability, it can also have an ability to add, delete, and modify data.

For example, if I want to change the value, originally the value is 100, I want to change it to 120. Then I can say that I have its corresponding merkle path, and even if I don’t have complete data.

How big is this merkle path? It may only be 1KB or 2KB of data, and the entire file may be 1TB or 10TB. I only have this one data and corresponding merkle path, 1KB or 2KB of data, I can say that I want to change it from 100 to 120, and then after changing it, the corresponding merkle root, the entire database (root node) will change. After changing it, what is the corresponding merkle root? I know.

I know. I only have this one root, which is the old root 1. I said that I want to change key:value1 to key:value2, and I want to make such a modification. After modifying it, the entire root becomes root2. The entire root becomes root2, and many nodes of the entire database will change accordingly and become root2.

Then, the key: value modification is a very small amount of data.

Then I just said that merkle path is also a very small amount of data in Merkel tree. With these very small amounts of data, I can change the overall state of the database from root1 to root2.

So for miners, as long as I have very concise summary information, I can control the entire database for adding, deleting, modifying and querying.

This is very important. The conclusion is that in MultiVAC, miners no longer need to have a complete ledger, you only need to have very lightweight data, then you can add, delete and modify the entire ledger.

This means that you don’t need a powerful computer, which means that you only need to have a really ordinary PC, then you can become a miner of MultiVAC, you can do all the mining work.

This is very important because it means that we have given all the mining capacities, as well as the right to join, to ordinary people, no longer the kind of people with computer rooms or a super node, (or) social aristocracies, or the upper class.

So this is what we think is a key point, which is to completely hand over the power of mining to miners, and the threshold for miners to join is very low, so that a complete decentralization can be achieved.

Here we go. This concludes the first highlight. You now know that miners don’t need to have a complete ledger — therefore hardware threshold for taking part to mining is low.
The second highlight will be about the storage node design, and it will be detailed in the next monthly report.


MultiVAC is a high-throughput flexible blockchain platform based on all-dimensional sharding. It’s a next-generation public blockchain platform built for integration with large-scale decentralized applications.

MultiVAC is developing the first solution in the world characterized by speediness, efficiency, and all-dimensional sharding to expand its capacity in computation, transmission, and storage. It realizes the maximum throughput while maintaining decentralization and without sacrificing security.

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All-dimensional Sharding Flexible Blockchain, known as multi-core Ethereum with parallel processing.